Child Health and Community Health
Human Immunodeficiency Virus is still a major health problem in developing countries. In Mbita Sub-county, the HIV prevalence stands at 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15–19 years), adults aged 30–34 years is 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women is 1.43 times larger than among men. There is a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages.
There is a dearth of information on malaria endemicity in the islands of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Single infections of Plasmodium falciparum (88.1%), P. malariae (3.96%) and P. ovale (0.79%), as well as multiple infections (7.14%) of these parasites, were found on Rusinga Island. The overall malaria prevalence was 10.9%. The risk of contracting malaria was higher among dwellers of Rusinga West than Rusinga East locations. Parasite positivity was significantly associated with individuals who did not use malaria protective measures. Although current entomological interventions mainly target indoor environments, additional strategies should be considered to prevent outdoor transmission of malaria.
Schistosoma mansoni infection is a major cause of organomegaly and ultimately liver fibrosis in adults. Morbidity in pre-school-aged children is less defined, and they are currently not included in mass drug administration (MDA) programs for schistosomiasis control. The researchers report results of a study of the association of schistosomiasis with organomegaly in a convenience sample of 201 children under 7 years old in Rusinga, Kenya on two cross-sectional visits, before and after praziquantel treatment. The baseline prevalence of schistosomiasis by antibody and/or stool was 80.3%. Schistosomiasis was associated with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The association with hepatomegaly persisted post-treatment. Schistosomiasis was associated with morbidity in this cohort. Efforts to include young children in mass treatment campaigns should intensify.